Impetuous PC-454 - Historia

Impetuous PC-454 - Historia


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Impetuoso

(PC 454: dp. 140; 1. 121 '; b. 14'5 "; dr. 6'; s. 16 k .; a. 6 30 cal. Ma.)

El yate de patrulla Arlis fue construido en 1915 por Robert Jacob Inc., City Island, N.Y., adquirido por la Marina el 12 de agosto de 1940; y comisionado como PC-454 el 16 de octubre de 1940.

Asignado al 15º Distrito Naval, el PC-454 llegó a la Zona del Canal a mediados de noviembre de 1940, para patrullar los accesos al Canal de Panamá. Desde noviembre de 1940 hasta agosto de 1944, realizó operaciones de escolta y patrulla frente a América Central mientras estaba en constante vigilia por los submarinos enemigos. El PC-454 se nombró Impetuoso y se reclasificó como PYc-46 el 15 de julio de 1943. El 31 de agosto de 1944, el yate patrullero llegó a Filadelfia y fue dado de baja allí el 27 de septiembre. Impetuous fue eliminado de la Lista de la Marina el 14 de octubre y vendido por la WSA el 14 de junio de 1945.


Por qué Jesús fue traicionado por Judas Iscariote

Desde el momento en que planta un beso a Jesús de Nazaret en el Huerto de Getsemaní, Judas Iscariote selló su propio destino: ser recordado como el traidor más famoso de la historia.

Pero al identificar a Jesús ante las autoridades judías, Judas puso en marcha la serie de eventos que se convirtieron en los cimientos de la fe cristiana: el arresto de Jesús, su juicio, su muerte por crucifixión y, finalmente, su resurrección, conocida colectivamente como la Pasión de Jesús. Cristo.

Dado lo poco que sabemos de él en la Biblia, Judas Iscariote sigue siendo una de las figuras más enigmáticas & # x2014e & # x2014 & # x2014 en la historia de Jesús & # x2019. En los últimos años, el descubrimiento del perdido Evangelio de Judas, un texto gnóstico que originalmente data del siglo II, ha llevado a algunos estudiosos a reconsiderar su papel e incluso a preguntarse si se le podría haber culpado injustamente por traicionar a Jesús.


Cómo & # 8216Bridgerton, & # 8217 & # 8216Dickinson & # 8217 ayudaron a reescribir las injusticias de la historia

Las piezas sensuales de época son a menudo objeto de burla por su espíritu de "más es más" (conjuntos suntuosos, cuerpos suntuosos), pero están lejos de ser meras indulgencias insípidas. Para estos programas que rompen el género, la hiperrealidad es de hecho el punto.

Robyn Bahr

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Este año, romance de Regencia Bridgerton superado La reina y el gambito n. ° 8217, Rey Tigre y El Brujo para convertirse en el programa original más visto de Netflix, llegando a más de 80 millones de hogares en tan solo un mes de su debut. Esto fue una sorpresa para el transmisor, que había proyectado una audiencia más pequeña para la serie, a pesar de su pedigrí Shonda Rhimes y su narración racialmente inclusiva. Claro, los dramas de vestuario arrolladores (y castos) han definido tradicionalmente la televisión de prestigio, pero parece que incluso el populista Netflix subestimó los encantos de largo alcance de un buen destripador de corpiños.

BridgertonLa reacción inevitable de & # 8216 llegó casi con la misma rapidez, con los detractores levantando sus proverbiales gafas por el proverbial puente nasal para declarar la serie & mdash suspiro! & mdash históricamente inexacto. Los hilos de Twitter y las piezas explicativas pronto aparecieron regañando al programa & # 8217 el uso de corsés como metáfora, su vestuario ahistóricamente vibrante y sus personajes & # 8217 inocencia sexual inverosímil.

Historias relacionadas

& # 039Bridgerton & # 039, la estrella Phoebe Dynevor y la directora Julie Anne Robinson sobre cómo le dieron un toque moderno a la serie de Netflix

"Mi familia no quiere ser abrumada por mi trasero": Regé-Jean Page, Chris Rock, John Boyega y la mesa redonda de actores dramáticos de THR

Sin embargo, estas minuciosas disecciones pasan por alto los dulces atractivos del revisionismo histórico. Programas que rompen el género como Bridgerton, Apple TV + y # 8217s Dickinson y Hulu & # 8217s 2020 nominado al Emmy El gran no pretenden pintar un retrato educativo del pasado, sino satirizar las pretensiones literarias del arte historizado. Serie elegible para Emmy Bridgerton y Dickinson actuar como pastiche y parodia, respetando las convenciones de Teatro obra maestradramas de vestuario al estilo mientras se burla explícitamente de ellos.

Basado en la serie de novelas románticas de Julia Quinn & # 8217, Bridgerton tiene lugar en el Londres de la era georgiana en 1813, y se centra en la aristocrática familia Bridgerton, sus pares adinerados y la alta sociedad jerárquica. Bon Ton cultura que restringe sus elecciones matrimoniales y, por lo tanto, su destino de por vida. En los primeros momentos del piloto, las hijas adolescentes de Bridgerton y sus mejores amigas, las vecinas chicas Featherington, se presentan en el Queen Charlotte & # 8217s Ball como cerdos preciados que llegan al mercado, esperando a que la impetuosa realeza (Golda Rosheuvel) declare la despedida de soltera más elegible de la temporada social.

Si bien este evento ocurrió anualmente, Bridgerton realza la indulgencia de cuento de hadas del momento al enfatizar la calidad de princesa de su delicada protagonista y el cociente de hermanastra fea de sus poco elegantes hermanas y conocidas. Por supuesto, la joven belleza se convierte en la muñeca favorita de la reina y, sin embargo, a pesar de esta validación a través de la mercantilización, Daphne (Phoebe Dynevor) todavía quiere casarse por amor. Sin embargo, a mitad de temporada, la ilusión de cuento de hadas se rompe y Bridgerton tiene éxito en criticar no solo las tramas matrimoniales anticuadas, sino también la modestia tan honorable de sus antepasados ​​televisivos. (Incluso nombres raros y ridículos como & # 8220Bridgerton & # 8221 y & # 8220Featherington & # 8221 ridiculizan las percepciones estadounidenses de la gentileza británica).

Dickinson, por otro lado, es una versión etérea y cómica de la vida temprana de la poeta de Nueva Inglaterra de mediados del siglo XIX Emily Dickinson (Hailee Steinfeld), una mujer que cambió la literatura para siempre con su existencialismo expresivo y puntuación creativa y mdash, pero no hasta mucho más allá. su muerte. En lugar de centrarse en su vida doméstica y la posible agorafobia en la mediana edad, como han hecho otros escritores, la showrunner Alena Smith imagina a Dickinson como una veinteañera rebelde con un temperamento pésimo y una lujuria palpitante por su cuñada (como la verdadera -la vida que Dickinson pudo haber tenido). El rapero Wiz Khalifa interpreta a Death, vagando por la ciudad de Dickinson en un carruaje negro tirado por caballos espectrales. Fuman marihuana juntos.

Dickinson amplifica el surrealismo incorporando notas históricas a pie de página en el diálogo, haciendo comparaciones puntuales entre el bienestar y las modas de las redes sociales de las décadas de 1850 y 2020 y contratando artistas de culto como John Mulaney y Zosia Mamet para interpretar versiones absurdas de figuras históricas de la vida real sin cambiar su estilo moderno. personae. Donde otro creador podría haberse aferrado a los hechos para volver a contar la historia de Dickinson y la adultez emergente, Smith interpreta la vida de su sujeto con alegría y transgresión para recordar a los espectadores de hoy que las luchas internas de la escritora más joven probablemente no eran diferentes de las los suyos.

Por lo tanto, de manera vital, este tipo de programas son un espejo de la casa de la diversión de nuestra cultura actual. Cada uno es un estudio del genio femenino, y al jugar con el humor y el lenguaje modernos, hacen que el pasado sea más accesible para nosotros. Estas historias son fiestas sensoriales, llenas de vestidos de seda, jardines verdes, pistas propulsoras y relaciones simplificadas de raza y género: en otras palabras, son fantasías que permiten a los espectadores de hoy en día revivir y reescribir las injusticias de la historia en nuestros propios términos.

Esta historia apareció por primera vez en una edición independiente de junio de la revista The Hollywood Reporter. Para recibir la revista, haga clic aquí para suscribirse.


Persecuciones papales

1209 - Las cruzadas contra los albigenses en el sur de Francia. Los cruzados católicos romanos masacraron aproximadamente a 20.000 ciudadanos de Béziers, Francia, el 22 de julio de 1209. Fueron asesinados tanto cristianos albigenses como católicos. Para cuando los ejércitos católicos romanos terminaron su cruzada, casi toda la población del sur de Francia (en su mayoría cristianos albigenses) había sido exterminada (referencia Link 1 y Link 2).

1236 - Los cruzados católicos romanos masacran a judíos en las regiones de Anjou y Poitou del oeste de Francia en una ola de persecución severa (referencia Enlace 1 y Enlace 2).

1481 - - Bajo la dirección de los inquisidores católicos romanos, las autoridades torturaron, quemaron y masacraron a decenas, incluso cientos de miles de personas durante la Inquisición española (Jean Antoine Llorentine, History of the Inquistion como se cita en RW Thompson, The Papacy and the Civil Power ( Nueva York, 1876) como se cita en Dave Hunt, A Woman Rides the Beast).

1540 - 1570 - Los ejércitos católicos romanos masacraron al menos a 900.000 cristianos valdenses de todas las edades durante este período de 30 años (fuente: Halley's Bible Handbook).

1553 - 1558 - La reina católica romana María I de Inglaterra (también conocida como María sangrienta) intenta traer a Inglaterra de nuevo bajo el yugo de la tiranía papal. Durante su reinado, casi 300 hombres y mujeres mueren quemados en la hoguera. Sus víctimas incluyen obispos, eruditos y otros líderes protestantes (Enlace).

1572 - Masacre del día de San Bartolomé. Los soldados católicos franceses comienzan a matar protestantes en París la noche del 24 de agosto de 1572. Los soldados matan al menos a 10,000 protestantes durante los primeros tres días. Al menos 8000 protestantes más mueren a medida que la matanza se extiende al campo (Link).

1618 - 1648 - La Guerra de los Treinta Años. Esta sangrienta guerra religiosa es planeada, instigada y orquestada por la orden jesuita católica romana y sus agentes en un intento de exterminar a todos los protestantes en Europa. Muchos países de Europa central pierden hasta la mitad de su población (ver Cushing B. Hassell, Historia de la Iglesia de Dios, Capítulo XVII).

1641 - 1649 - Ocho años de carnicería católica romana instigada por los jesuitas de protestantes irlandeses cobra la vida de cientos de miles de protestantes (ver Cushing B. Hassell, Historia de la Iglesia de Dios, Capítulo XVII).

1685 - Los soldados católicos franceses matan aproximadamente a 500.000 hugonotes protestantes franceses por orden del rey católico romano Luis 14 de Francia.

1941 - 1945 - El católico ustashi en Yugoslavia asesinó a cientos de miles de ciudadanos yugoslavos, serbios, judíos y romaníes. Y cientos de miles se vieron obligados a convertirse al catolicismo. (enlace, enlace, enlace)

1949 - 1953 - Con el apoyo del gobierno colombiano, la Iglesia Católica Romana hizo fusilar, ahogar y castrar a 60.000 protestantes y no católicos. El Papa Pío XII otorgó al presidente colombiano uno de los premios más altos que la iglesia puede otorgar.

Durante su pleno reinado de terror, el papado había causado la cruel muerte de por lo menos 50 MILLONES de personas. Las siguientes son citas de los pocos libros de historia disponibles sobre las persecuciones papales.

Bertrand, el legado papal, escribió una carta al papa Honorio, deseando ser llamado de la cruzada contra los testigos primitivos y los contendientes de la fe. En ese documento auténtico, afirmó, que en quince años, 300.000 de esos soldados cruzados se habían convertido en víctimas de su propia furia fanática y ciega. Su sed implacable e insaciable de sangre cristiana y humana no perdonó a nadie al alcance de su despotismo impetuoso y usurpaciones irrestrictas. En el río Garona, se produjo un conflicto entre los croisaders, con sus líderes eclesiásticos, los prelados de Thoulouse y Comminges que prometieron solemnemente a todos sus vasallos el perdón total de los pecados y la posesión del cielo inmediatamente, si eran muertos en la batalla. . El monarca español y sus confederados reconocieron que debieron haber perdido 400.000 hombres, en ese tremendo conflicto, e inmediatamente después, pero Los papistas se jactaban de que, incluidas las mujeres y los niños, habían masacrado a más de dos millones de la familia humana, en esa cruzada solitaria contra la parte suroeste de Francia.. & quot (Bourne, George, The American Textbook of Popery, Griffith & Simon, Filadelfia, 1846, págs. 402-403)

`` La cruzada católica contra los albigenses en el sur de Francia (de 1209 a 1229), bajo los papas Inocencio III, Honorio III. y Gregorio IX., fue una de las tragedias más sangrientas de la historia de la humanidad. El número de albigenses que perecieron en la guerra de los veinte años se estima entre uno y dos millones.. & quot (Cushing B. Hassell, Historia de la Iglesia de Dios, Capítulo XIV)

& quotNecesito hablarte de la guerra de los treinta años en Alemania, que fue principalmente instigada por los jesuitas, para privar a los protestantes del derecho al culto religioso gratuito, garantizado por el tratado de Augsburgo? O de la rebelión irlandesa, de la carnicería inhumana de unos quince millones de indios en Sudamérica, México y Cuba, por los papistas españoles? En resumen, los historiadores auténticos calculan que La Roma papal ha derramado la sangre de sesenta y ocho millones de la raza humana. con el fin de establecer sus reclamos infundados de dominio religioso. '' (The Glorious Reformation por S. S. SCHMUCKER, 1838 - citando 'El papismo, enemigo de la libertad civil' del Dr. Brownlee, p. 105)

`` Este fue el siglo de las últimas guerras religiosas en la cristiandad, la Guerra de los Treinta Años en Alemania, fomentada por los jesuitas, Reducir el pueblo al canibalismo y la población de Bohemia de 4.000.000 a 780.000 y de Alemania de 20.000.000 a 7.000.000.y haciendo del sur de Alemania casi un desierto. (Cushing B. Hassell, Historia de la Iglesia de Dios, Capítulo XVII)

`` En una palabra, la iglesia de Roma ha gastado inmensos tesoros y ha derramado, en asesinatos, la sangre de sesenta y ocho millones quinientos mil de la raza humana, para establecer ante el mundo asombrado y disgustado, su firme determinación de aniquilar todo reclamo de la familia humana a la libertad, y el derecho a la libertad ilimitada de conciencia. '' (W C Brownlee, El papado, enemigo de la libertad civil, 1836, págs. 104-105)

"Allí perecieron bajo el Papa Juliano 200.000 cristianos; y por la masacre francesa, en un cálculo moderado, en 3 meses, 100.000". De los valdenses perecieron 150.000 de los albigenses, 150.000. Allí perecieron los jesuitas en 30 años sólo 900.000. ¡El duque de Alva destruido solo por el verdugo común, 36,000 personas, la cantidad asesinada por él es establecida por Grocio en 100,000! Allí perecieron por el fuego y las torturas de la Inquisición en España, Italia y Francia 150.000. ¡En las masacres irlandesas perecieron 150.000 protestantes! En resumen, la Iglesia Católica Romana ha provocado la ruina y destrucción de un millón y medio de moros en España, casi dos millones de judíos de América del Sur en Europa. En México, incluidas las islas de Cuba y Santo Domingo, quince millones de indios, en 40 años, fueron víctimas del papado. ¡Y en Europa, las Indias Orientales y América, al menos 50 millones de protestantes han sido asesinados por ella! Así, la iglesia de Roma se encuentra ante el mundo, 'la mujer de escarlata, sobre la Bestia escarlata'. ¡Una iglesia que dice ser cristiana, empapada en la sangre de sesenta y ocho millones y quinientos mil seres humanos! '' (W. C. Brownlee, Cartas en la controversia católica romana, 1834, págs. 347-348)

Alexander Campbell, conocido líder religioso del siglo XIX, declaró en un debate con John B. Purcell, obispo de Cincinnati, en 1837 que los registros de historiadores y martirólogos muestran que puede ser razonable estimar que a partir de entre cincuenta y sesenta y ocho millones de seres humanos murieron, sufrieron tortura, perdieron sus posesiones o fueron devorados por la Iglesia Católica Romana durante los horribles años de la Inquisición. El obispo Purcell hizo pocos esfuerzos para refutar estas cifras.. & quot (Citando Un debate sobre la religión católica romana, Christian Publishing Co., 1837, p. 327.). (La sombra de Roma, por John B. Wilder Zondervan Publishing Co., 1960, página 87)

`` Mantengamos el sentido de la proporción. El registro del 'cristianismo' [católico romano] desde los días en que obtuvo por primera vez el poder de perseguir es uno de los más espantosos de la historia. El número total de maniqueos, arrianos, priscilianistas, paulicianos, bogomiles, cátaros, valdenses, albigenses, brujas, lolardos, husitas, judíos y protestantes asesinados a causa de su rebelión contra Roma corre claramente hacia muchos millones y más allá de estas ejecuciones o masacres reales está el número enormemente mayor de personas que fueron torturadas, encarceladas o mendigadas. Me preocupa más bien el aspecto histórico positivo de esto. En casi todos los siglos, una gran parte de la raza se ha esforzado por rechazar la religión cristiana y, si en esos siglos hubiera existido la misma libertad que disfrutamos, el catolicismo romano, a pesar de la ignorancia universal, se habría reducido hace mucho tiempo en una secta. La historia religiosa de Europa aún no se ha escrito. & quot (La historia de la controversia religiosa Capítulo XXIII por Joseph McCabe (un ateo) que vivió de 1867 a 1955)

'Mede ha calculado por buenas autoridades' que en la guerra con los albigenses y valdenses perecieron de estos pueblos, solo en Francia, 1.000.000. '& quot (Cristo y el Anticristo, por Samuel J. Cassels, 1846, página 257)

¿Quiénes tienen sus calabozos debajo de sus catedrales, en las que pretenden, como inquisidores de su propia diócesis, encarcelar a hombres libres en nuestra república? ¡Obispos papistas extranjeros! Y los hechos con respecto a un hombre tan confinado y azotado, en las celdas de Baltimore [AMÉRICA], hasta que se retractó, se han publicado, ¡y hasta el día de hoy no se han contradicho! . ¿Quiénes tienen el hábito de proferir amenazas feroces para asesinar y quemar a los protestantes que se oponen con éxito al romanismo? ¡Los papistas extranjeros! Tengo en mi poder la evidencia de no menos de seis amenazas inhumanas de este tipo en mi contra. (W. C. Brownlee, El papado, el enemigo de la libertad civil y religiosa, J. S. Taylor, Nueva York, 1836, p.210-211)

& quot; Se calcula que durante el reinado de Justiniano, África perdió cinco millones de habitantes así el arrianismo se extinguió en esa región, no por ninguna imposición de conformidad, sino por el exterminio de la raza que lo había introducido y profesado. - Historia de la Iglesia Cristiana, J.C. Robertson, Vol. 1, pág. 521. & quot (Bunch, Taylor, El libro de Daniel, p. 101)

[nota al pie, hablando del Papa Inocencio VIII] "Sin embargo, en el trono papal jugó el fanático contra los alemanes, a quienes acusó de magia, en su bula Summis desiderantes impactibus, etc., y también contra los husitas, a quienes casi exterminó. & quot (Williams, Henry Smith, Historia del mundo del historiador, vol. 8, p. 643)

`` El inquisidor Reinerius, que murió en 1259, ha dejado constancia: 'Con respecto a las sectas de antiguos herejes, observe que ha habido más de setenta, todas las cuales, excepto las sectas de los maniqueos y arrianos y runcarianos y los leonistas que han infectado a Alemania, por el favor de Dios, sido destruido. & quot (Broadbent, E.H., The Pilgrim Church, Gospel Folio Press, 2002, p. 90 (publicado originalmente en 1931)

& quot; Se emitió un edicto bajo la regencia de Teodora, que decretó que los paulicianos debían ser exterminados a fuego y espada, o devueltos a la iglesia griega. Los historiadores civiles y eclesiásticos afirman que, en un breve reinado, Cien mil paulicianos fueron ejecutados. & quot (Andrew Miller, Short Papers on Church, Londres, Capítulo 16)

"¿El número total de víctimas que se han ofrecido en Europa desde el comienzo de la Reforma?" ¿En parte por la guerra, en parte por la Inquisición y mil otros métodos de crueldad romana? No menos dentro de cuarenta años, si el cálculo de un escritor eminente es justo, que ¡cuarenta y cinco millones!& quot (John Wesley, 'Doctrine of Original Sin', Parte I, sección II.8, 1757, Wesley's Works, editado por Thomas Jackson, vol. 9, págs. 217-19)

--La ​​inquisición, que se estableció en el siglo XII contra los valdenses. ahora se puso a trabajar de manera más eficaz. Se llevaron a cabo terribles persecuciones en varias partes de Alemania, e incluso en Bohemia, que duró unos treinta años, y se decía que la sangre de los santos fluía como ríos de agua. Los países de Polonia, Lituania y Hungría fueron inundados de manera similar con sangre protestante ''. (Buck, Charles, Un diccionario teológico, que contiene definiciones de todos los términos religiosos. Filadelfia, Thomas Cowperthwait & Co., 1838, artículo 'Persecución')

Los que no fueron ejecutados sufrieron encarcelamiento, derribaron sus casas, devastaron sus tierras, robaron sus propiedades y sus esposas e hijas, después de ser violadas, fueron enviadas a conventos. Si alguno huía de estas crueldades, era perseguido por los bosques, cazado y fusilado como fieras. A la cabeza de los dragones, en todas las provincias de Francia, marchaban los obispos, sacerdotes, frailes, etc. se ordenó al clero que mantuviera el espíritu cruel de los militares. Se publicó una orden para demoler todas las iglesias protestantes ''. (Southwell, Henry, El nuevo libro de los mártires o martirologio cristiano completo. Contiene un relato histórico auténtico y genuino de las muchas y terribles persecuciones contra la Iglesia de Cristo, en todas partes del mundo. Pie de imprenta Londres: impreso para J. Cooke, [1765?] Páginas 108-109)

`` En Bohemia, hacia 1600, en una población de 4.000.000, El 80 por ciento eran protestantes. Cuando los Habsburgo y los jesuitas terminaron su trabajo, quedaron 800.000, todos católicos. . En Austria y Hungría la mitad de la población protestante, pero bajo los Habsburgo y los jesuitas fueron masacrados. En Polonia, a finales del siglo XVI, parecía que el romanismo estaba a punto de desaparecer por completo, pero también aquí, los jesuitas, por la persecución, mataron a la Reforma. En Italia, el país del Papa, la Reforma se estaba consolidando, pero la Inquisición se puso a trabajar y apenas quedó rastro de protestantismo ''. (Manual de la Biblia de Halley, p. 798)

`` Los horrores de la Inquisición, ordenados y mantenidos por los Papas, durante un período de 500 años, en el que innumerables millones fueron torturados y quemados, constituyen la imagen más brutal, bestial y diabólica de toda la historia. '' (Manual de la Biblia de Halley, p.732)

Consulte ESTE DOCUMENTO que enumera más crímenes de la Iglesia Católica contra los niños.

Amigos, por favor abran sus ojos a esta iglesia anticristo. Esta no es la iglesia de Dios en absoluto. Es una iglesia apóstata y la historia PRUEBA su estatus como el principal sistema 'anticristo' de la Biblia. El Papa cree que se sienta EN EL LUGAR DE Cristo, actuando como si fuera Dios, que es lo que el anticristo realmente quiere decir en el idioma original. Alguien que se pone EN LUGAR DE Cristo. Y las doctrinas de esta iglesia son una abominación para nuestro Santo Padre Celestial. ¡Atiende la llamada hoy! ¡SALGA DE ELLA MI PUEBLO! (Apocalipsis 18: 4).


USS Impetuous (PYc-46)

Morir Dechado (spätere Namen: Sybilla III, Arlis, PC-454 und Impetuoso) war eine Yacht, die sowohl im Ersten as auch im Zweiten Weltkrieg von der US Navy como Patrouillenboot eingesetzt wurde.

1917-1918 también Sybilla III
1940-1943 también PC-454
1943–1944 als Impetuoso

1917: 103 toneladas (tonelaje)
1940: 140 toneladas

1917: 36,6 m (120 pies)
1940: 36,8 m (121 pies)

1917: 4,4 m (14 ′ 6 ″)
1940: 4,9 m (16 ′) / 4,4 m (14′5 ″)

1917: Drei- und Einpfünder, MG
1940: Sechs .30-cal-MG

Die Motoryacht wurde 1915 unter dem Namen Dechado in der Werft Robert Jacob Inc. en City Island, Nueva York gebaut. Bereits kurz nach der Fertigstellung folgte die erste Umbenennung in Sybilla III. Nach Eintritt der Vereinigten Staaten in den Weltkrieg wurde das Boot, welches sich inzwischen im Besitz von John F. Betz aus Philadelphia befand, am 14. Mai 1917 als Hilfsschiff von der Navy übernommen, bewaffnet und als USS Sybilla III (SP-104) en Dienst gestellt. Bis Kriegsende wurde die Yacht für Patrouillenfahrten im 7. Naval District (Florida) eingesetzt am 24. Dezember 1918 folgte dann die Rückgabe an den Besitzer.

Während der nächsten zwei Jahrzehnte wurde das Boot zivil genutzt und in Arlis umbenannt. Angesichts des drohenden Zweiten Weltkrieges wurde die Yacht am 12 de agosto de 1940 erneut von der Navy übernommen, zum U-Jagd-Boot (Cazador de submarinos) umgerüstet und am 16. Oktober des gleichen Jahres als USS PC-454 en Dienst gestellt. Das Boot wurde en Zentralamerika in der Umgebung der Panamakanalzone (15. Distrito Naval), wo es Mitte November eintraf, eingesetzt am 15. Juli 1943 folgte eine erneute Umbenennung und Umklassifizierung zur Coastal Patrol Yacht USS Impetuous (PYc-46) (engl. „impetuoso“: ungestüm). Im Sommer 1944 wurde muere Impetuoso dann nicht mehr benötigt und deshalb außer Dienst gestellt, im Oktober aus dem Schiffsregister gestrichen und schließlich en junio de 1945 von der War Shipping Administration verkauft. Der weitere Verbleib ist ungeklärt.


Cañoneras a motor clase PGM-9

Las lanchas de motor de clase PGM-1 eran una clase de ocho cañoneras convertidas para la Armada de los Estados Unidos de 1943 a 1944 y fueron reemplazadas por las lanchas de motor de clase PGM-9.
Las cañoneras a motor de clase PGM-9 fueron una clase de 24 cañoneras convertidas para la Armada de los Estados Unidos de 1944 a 1945, sucediendo a las cañoneras a motor de clase PGM-1
Las cañoneras de la clase PGM-39 designadas por la Armada de los Estados Unidos con Motor Cañonera Patrulla eran una clase de cincuenta y nueve cañoneras construidas en varios astilleros.
El USS PGM-9 fue un cañonero de motor clase PGM-9 en servicio con la Armada de los Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Establecido por Consolidated Ship Building Corp. en
El USS PGM-18 fue un cañonero de motor clase PGM-9 construido para la Armada de los Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Fue construida y comisionada originalmente como USS PC - 1255
El USS PGM-32 fue una cañonera a motor de clase PGM-9 en servicio con la Armada de los Estados Unidos durante el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y brevemente después de la guerra. PGM - 32 se colocó
El USS PGM-17 fue un cañonero de motor de clase PGM-9 construido para la Armada de los Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Fue colocada y lanzada como USS PC - 1189, una clase PC - 461
El USS PGM-11 era una cañonera a motor de clase PGM-9 en servicio con la Armada de los Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. El barco fue ordenado el 27 de febrero de 1942 y depositado
Las cañoneras clase Asheville fueron originalmente designadas cañoneras a motor PGM, pero fueron reclasificadas en 1967 como naves combatientes de patrulla PG. La clase de Asheville empleó
El USS PGM - 10 era una lancha cañonera a motor de clase PGM - 9 que estuvo en servicio con la Armada de los Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial y fue transferida a la Armada de Filipinas.
El USS PGM-4 fue un cañonero de motor de clase PGM-1 que sirvió en la Armada de los Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Originalmente se estableció como un submarino de clase SC - 497.

Las cañoneras de la clase Erie eran una clase de cañoneras construidas por los Estados Unidos antes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La clase fue diseñada en 1932 y encargada en
AB - Cañonera clase 21 Ex - US Navy PGM - Cañonera a motor clase 71 Ex - USCG 83 - Cúter de pie de página tipo AB - Clase 25 Turk tipi avcı botu Clase Doğan MAS: Bora
El USS Antelope PGM - 86 PG - 86 era una cañonera clase Asheville de la Armada de los Estados Unidos. Antelope, una lancha cañonera a motor de alta velocidad, con casco de aluminio, fue colocada
ocho cañoneras encargadas por la Armada turca, pero que pasaron a ver servicio en el Mar del Norte como corredores de bloqueo rápido. Inicialmente fue clasificada como la
13 km h 8.1 mph y estaba armado con dos ametralladoras calibre 50. Las cañoneras de la clase PGM-9 se construyeron en los EE. UU. Y se transfirieron al finalizar a Vietnam del Sur.
Huelgas suicidas japonesas, página 133, por Robin L.Rielly navsource, PGM - Diccionario de cañoneras de motor de clase 9 de buques de combate navales estadounidenses, volumen 1, página 72
Seis lanchas patrulleras costeras tipo PGM de la Armada y siete lanchas patrulleras tipo CGC. En 1958, la Armada de Myanmar recibió 10 cañoneras fluviales clase Y-301 de Yugoslavia.
ex - SC - 1366 USS PGM - 9 ex - PC - 1548 USS PGM - 10 ex - PC - 805 USS PGM - 11 ex - PC - 806 USS PGM - 12 ex - PC - 1088 USS PGM - 13 ex - PC - 1089 USS PGM - 14 ex - PC - 1090 USS PGM - 15 ex - PC - 1091
Comando de Historia y Patrimonio. Consultado el 21 de enero de 2012. No 41 lanchas de motor de clase URSS Navypedia. Consultado el 29 de abril de 2016. barcos hundidos en el Báltico.

Armada helénica Grecia Πολεμικό Ναυτικό Fragata Corbeta Submarino.

9. Límites de propiedades mecánicas de la aleación de aluminio. Extrusiones. Viajes OzzZZenger Clase Dos Tramos. 102 naves de patrulla de alta velocidad PGM de la Marina de los EE. UU., 154 pies de largo. o. 244. 0. La o de la cañonera PGM. Thisdata Следующая Войти Настройки. 1 72 República de China Ou Chang PC 102 Galería de modelos de barcos. Encuentre imágenes de stock de cañoneras en HD y millones de otras fotos de stock libres de derechos, CHONBURI, TAILANDIA 21 DE DICIEMBRE DE 2019 PGM 272 Motor de cañonera de patrulla o cañonera PGM City Class o cañonera del Mississippi, eran buques de guerra 9 conjunto de iconos vectoriales barco de hielo, cañonera, faluca, lancha, carabela, esquife. Lista maestra de todos los buques patrulleros de la Marina de los EE. UU. Podemos hacerle un límite. El motor de turbina de gas en servicio naval está sujeto a una operación severa de 2 lanchas de motor clase PGM 84. El ataque de fidación es resistido por el cromo 9, 12. La Marina de Agua Marrón en Vietnam. Las cañoneras de motor de patrulla de la clase PGM 9 eran una clase de cañoneras que se convirtieron de los cazadores de submarinos de la clase PC 461 mientras aún estaban debajo. Cañonera motorizada clase PGM 9 zero. Todas las embarcaciones de la clase de lanchas patrulleras construidas antes de la década de 1980 tenían amianto a bordo. USS Pegasus PHM 1 USS Grand Rapids PGM 98 USS Tucumcari Nave de patrulla Hidroala de misiles Hidroala de cañonero Cazador de submarinos Cañonera de escolta Lancha de motor Cañonera de río Equipo de apoyo para veteranos Última modificación: 9 de octubre de 2020.


El verdadero Robinson Crusoe

Hace tres siglos, un impetuoso marinero escocés conocido como Alexander Selkirk, aunque este no era su nombre real, languidecía frente a la costa de Chile en un barco británico devorado por los gusanos Puertos de Cinque cuando empezó a discutir con el capitán que el barco lleno de enfermedades y con fugas era una trampa mortal.

Contenido relacionado

Selkirk, un hábil navegante, y la tripulación enferma del barco eran corsarios y, en efecto, piratas legalizados para la Corona británica, que habían pasado un año en el mar frente a Sudamérica robando barcos españoles y pueblos costeros. Selkirk ya había realizado un viaje similar. Conocía todos los riesgos. Pero en octubre de 1704, como Puertos de Cinque Anclado en un archipiélago desierto a 418 millas al oeste de Valparaíso, Chile, había tomado una decisión que cambió su vida.

Selkirk exigió que su capitán de 21 años, el teniente Thomas Stradling, a quien consideraba arrogante, lo dejara en la isla más grande, un deseo que Stradling estaba feliz de cumplir. Según todos los informes, Selkirk, de 28 años, era un exaltado. En Escocia, había golpeado a su padre y a sus dos hermanos por una broma inofensiva y más tarde dejaría a las dos mujeres que decían ser su esposa.

En cualquier caso, Selkirk se quedó en tierra, pero cuando se dio cuenta de que ninguno de los tripulantes se unía a él en el motín, volvió frenéticamente al océano y le pidió perdón a Stradling, un tirano que se deleitaba en decir que no.

Afortunadamente, por el bien de Selkirk & # 8217s y la literatura mundial & # 8217s, aceptó su destino, sobrevivió y, a su regreso a Inglaterra, inspiró uno de los grandes cuentos de autosuficiencia y coraje del mundo, Daniel Defoe & # 8217s. Robinson Crusoe.

Sin embargo, el cliché & # 233 es cierto & # 8212la verdad es más extraña que la ficción. La vida real de Alexander Selkirk superó a Crusoe & # 8217 en casi todos los aspectos. Pero entonces puedo estar sesgado. Verá, el pobre Alex, pirata, patán y héroe, no nació de hecho con el nombre de Selkirk, sino con un nombre escocés aún menos común, uno al que me he unido: Selcraig. Sí, Alex es familia. Según el genealogista escocés Tony Reid, soy descendiente directo del hermano mayor de Alex, John. Alex aparentemente nunca tuvo hijos.

Lo primero que recuerdo haber escuchado de la conexión Selcraig-Crusoe fue de mi National Geographic-hoarding dad, now 91, who would wait until he had a captive audience at dinner to tell us kids about our Scottish ancestors. We mostly nodded and asked to be excused from the table, but as I grew older, I learned that Selkirk was hardly just a castaway and accidental hero.

When Alexander Selcraig was born in Lower Largo, Scotland, in 1676, it was a fishing village in Fife with fewer than a thousand souls, across the Firth of Forth (an estuary of the North Sea) from bustling Edinburgh, then a metropolis of close to 30,000. Today it’s a quiet weekend destination for harried urbanites where BMWs crawl along a 15-foot-wide Main Street past centuries-old sandstone row houses with orange pantiled roofs and crow-stepped gables.

These days, the wide sandy beach beneath the inviting Crusoe Hotel is still perfect for dogs and long walks, but the herring boats that once choked the harbor are long departed, as are the fishermen, their net factories and the flaxen mills. There’s a tiny corner market, a railway pub and someone who offers “Reiki Indian head massage,” but a more powerful draw for many visitors is that Lower Largo is 15 minutes from Scotland’s cradle of golf, St. Andrews.

Were this the United States, you wouldn’t be able to see the ocean for all the billboards touting Crusoe Land Thrill Rides and Man Friday Burgers, but the Scots are a bit more restrained. Or perhaps it’s because, as a local drama critic put it to me over tea and scones: “Selkirk was a bit of a bastard, more respected in his absence than in his presence.”

Lower Largo’s tribute to its famous son consists of one bedroom-size exhibit room at the Crusoe Hotel, where there are some artifacts and photographs of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, site of his marooning, and a curious outdoor statue of Selcraig on Main Street, dressed in goatskins, looking out to sea as though he had lost a golf ball.

Even Scots seem perplexed by the statue. There’s no museum, no informational display. They stare at it, take a photograph and keep walking. “I think it’s absolute madness that the Crusoe connection is not promoted more,” says Stewart Dykes, owner with his wife, Lesley, of the Crusoe Hotel. “We’ve got something here every bit as big as the Loch Ness monster.”

Selcraig’s unseemly past in Lower Largo is not exactly a literary mystery. The limited amount of factual material about the spirited lad has been mined numerous times, from the early 1800s to 1939 and R. L. Megroz’s The Real Robinson Crusoe. The past four years have seen the publication of three distinct and well-researched books.

One of the oldest accounts, 1829’s The Life and Adventures of Alexander Selkirk, by John Howell, describes the mariner as “spoiled and wayward,” made only worse “by the indulgence of his mother, who concealed as much as she could his faults from his father.” Selcraig’s mother, Euphan Mackie, apparently believed that Alex, as the seventh son, was blessed with luck and should be encouraged in his dreams of going to sea. His father, John, wanted the lad to stay home and help with his tannery and shoemaking business, creating a simmering dispute that caused so much “domestic strife and bickering,” Howell writes, that John threatened to disinherit Alex.

Virtually all of these accounts lean heavily on one source, the records of the church (or kirk) elders at the Largo Kirk, known as the Kirk Session Minutes, which I found at the St. Andrews University Library.

On a spitting gray day, I went to the basement of the library, where two very proper women in the special collections department had me stow my bags, briefcases and ballpoint pens, and issued me a No. 2 pencil. I sat at a blond wood table with gooseneck reading lamps as a librarian placed before my incredulous eyes not rolls of microfilm, but the actual Kirk Session Minutes, marked 1691-1707, in a rebound brown cover about 13 inches long and 8 inches wide.

The unlined pages were like beige parchment, stiff though hardly brittle, with slight water damage that had darkened and frayed the edges. Amazingly, I was allowed to handle them without gloves, which, the librarian explained, actually tend to make readers more clumsy and more likely to tear delicate pages.

To the untrained eye, the crowded and tiny brown script seems unreadable, full of mystifying Old Scottish curlicues and words like “dry nieffells”—apparently a bare-knuckles brawl—but here and there you can decipher a punishment handed out for illicit “fornication,” or the one from August 25, 1695, that reads, “Alex[ande]r Selchcraig, son to John Selchcraig” was summoned to appear before church elders for his “Undecent carriage in ye church.” (That would be the imposing gray-stone, 12th-century church that still dominates the neighboring village, Upper Largo.) Two days later, the records state that Alex, then 19, “did not compear [appear] being gone away to ye sea: this bussiness is continued till his return.” It’s unclear exactly where Alex sailed off to, or precisely when he returned, but London-based biographer Diana Souhami suggests that he left with a Scottish colonizing expedition to what is now Panama.

By November 7, 1701, he was in trouble again. His kid brother, Andrew, made the mistake of laughing at him when he accidentally took a drink of salt water out of a can. Alex beat Andrew with a wooden staff, which ignited a family row that led to Alex’s assaulting his father, his brother John, and even John’s wife, Margaret Bell.

Days later Alex “compeared befor the pulpit and made acknowledgment of his sin . . . and was rebuked in face of the congregation for it, and promised amendment in the strenth of the lord, and so was dismissed.” But evidently Alex was fed up with Lower Largo.

In school, one biographer suggests, he had shown some skill at math and geography, and with at least one voyage under his belt, in 1703 he was able to convince buccaneer William Dampier that he was the man to navigate Dampier’s next privateering expedition to South America. It’s at this point, however, for reasons unclear, that Selcraig is forever known as Selkirk. Did he deliberately change his name at sea to distance himself from his past, or did someone misunderstand him? Or, as some researchers say, did consistent spelling of names simply not matter much back then?

Handsome but peculiar, Dampier was one of history’s most complex, and perhaps reluctant, pirates. Some saw him as a cruel, indecisive and incompetent sailor who once narrowly escaped being eaten by his own men in the Pacific and who was court-martialed after losing the British warship HMS Corzo off the coast of Australia. He was often drunk on duty and would infuriate his crews by letting captured ships go free without distributing loot to his men. Yet his contributions as an amateur anthropologist and naturalist were considerable, and it’s hard to minimize that he was the first man to circumnavigate the world three times.

Because pirates have been so romanticized by actors from Errol Flynn to Johnny Depp, it’s easy to overlook that the typical pirate ship stank of animals and excrement, that scurvy and yellow fever often killed so many that corpses were routinely dumped at sea, and that pirates often delighted in macabre torture.

Pirate prisoners would most likely have chosen to walk the plank—a practice more common in TV cartoons than in pirate history—rather than be subjected to sadists like Edward Low, who, in the 1720s, cut off a prisoner’s lips and broiled them in front of the hapless fellow, or those who practiced “woolding,” in which slender cords were twisted tightly around men’s heads in the hope of seeing their eyes burst from their sockets.

Consequently, when commercial shipowners or governments captured pirates, they were rarely shown mercy. Pirate expert David Cordingly, former curator of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, England, writes in Under the Black Flag that it was common practice in the British colonies to place the body of a captured pirate in a steel cage shaped like a man’s body and suspend it near the entrance to a port as a grisly warning to seamen.

It’s doubtful any of this weighed much on Selkirk’s mind in September 1703 as Dampier’s two ships, the 320-ton San Jorge and the 120-ton Puertos de Cinque, prepared to leave the harbor of Kinsale, Ireland, for South America. The ships were small by Royal Navy standards and full of desperate men who perhaps noticed that even the staffing of the ships foretold the danger they faced. los San Jorge, Souhami writes, was supplied for eight months of travel and carried five anchors, two sets of sails, 22 cannons, 100 small arms, 30 barrels of gunpowder and five times more men (120) than it could comfortably accommodate—a testament to the numbers needed to crew captured ships, but also a morbid acknowledgment that dozens would be lost to disease, battle and desertion.

The voyage started out badly and got only worse, according to an account by Dampier’s second mate, William Funnell.

After two weeks, with 50 miles being a good day’s travel under Selkirk’s navigation, the ships had reached the Portuguese island of Madeira, 350 miles west of Morocco, then the Cape Verde Islands, a major slave port west of Senegal, and on across the Atlantic to Brazil. But literally on the first night, while still in Ireland, a drunken Dampier had a violent argument with one officer, and dissension quickly spread.

By October the men were sick of brick-hard sea biscuits, dried peas and salt meat. They longed for fresh meat and vegetables, but settled for an occasional shark, dolphin or weary bird. As on most ships of the day, the men often slept in wet clothes and mildewed bedding. The ships were incubators for typhus, dysentery and cholera. Amonth later, 15 men had fever, and others were wracked by scurvy, caused by a vitamin C deficiency, which Souhami says claimed more lives than contagious disease, gunfire or shipwreck.

Things got only worse when Capt. Charles Pickering died of a fever in late November and command of the Puertos de Cinquewas given to his lieutenant, Thomas Stradling, a young upperclass seaman the crew disliked. There were fights and nearmutinies as the ship cruised the coast of Brazil. The meat and grain were filled with roaches and rat droppings.

In February 1704, both ships were finally west of Cape Horn’s foul storms and headed north along the coast of Chile, though by now they had lost sight of each other. los Puertos de Cinque holed up at a rendezvous point on one of the islands in the archipelago west of Valparaiso, but the crew was threatening mutiny against Stradling. Dampier showed up just in time to put down the rebellion by promising a tighter rein on cocky Stradling. But shortly he, too, faced dissent among his sailors, who wanted him to attack more ships.

los San Jorge y Puertos de Cinque left the island in March 1704 to continue their plundering along the coasts of Peru and Mexico, where tempers continued to flare. “Stradling,” writes biographer Souhami, “rounded on Dampier, called him a drunk who marooned his officers, stole treasure, hid behind blankets and beds when it came time to fight, took bribes, boasted of impossible prizes and when there was plunder to hand, let it go.”

In May the Puertos de Cinquesplit off from the San Jorge and spent the summer pirating on its own. By September the ship was so leaky that men were pumping out water day and night Selkirk believed that it was so riddled with worms that its masts and flooring needed immediate repair.That month the ship returned to the relative safety of the island, a secluded and uninhabited place where the men could regain their health and sanity. Soon Selkirk would look at the island and see salvation.

At a small suburban airport outside crowded Santiago, Chile, six of us stand anxiously beside a drafty hangar staring at an eight-passenger Piper Navajo prop plane. Mechanics are crawling over its dismantled left engine.

This is the twice-a-week flight one takes across 400 miles of frigid Pacific to reach the Juan Fernández Archipelago. A councilman from the island waits with me, joined by a history teacher, a young mother, and two Santiago policemen on a cushy work assignment. We’re all wondering if this three-hour delay might be one of those signs from the aviation gods.

“Don’t worry,” says our pilot, Ricardo Schaeffer, a former colonel in Chile’s federal police, with more than 3,000 flights over 20 years. “We only go when I know it is safe.”

Thus assured, I put my trust in a 1979 craft whose outer skin seems no thicker than a beer can. With surprisingly little turbulence, we finally climb over the city of six million humming past the jagged Andes and across the ocean at 6,000 feet, just above foamy white clouds. We also carry school textbooks and new diapers returning, we’ll take lobsters and octopus to Santiago restaurants.

After two hours of hypnotic engine drone, Schaeffer points to a growing gray dot on the horizon. “CrusoeIsland,” he says. The Chilean government renamed it RobinsonCrusoeIsland in 1966.

As we bank high above the reddish moonscape on the extreme western promontory of the 29-square-mile island, rugged volcanic mountains are visible in the distance, with seemingly great spots for hiking or diving. A sailor in the 1700s, however, would have seen nothing but trouble— grim, sheer-faced coves rising 80 feet straight up, and not a sandy beach in sight. Yet perhaps Selkirk knew, because mariners had stayed on the island before, that to find anything life-sustaining, like forests and goats, he’d have to sail to the lush northeast end and the well-protected Cumberland Bay, a 90-minute boat ride from the airstrip. On a sunny spring afternoon, whales flirt with the fishing boat carrying us, and dozens of yelping fur seals—an endemic species, Arctocephalus phillippii, that Dampier’s men saw by the “thousands”—sun themselves on the smooth inland rocks. CumberlandBay’s beaches are gray volcanic rocks, but the cove is inviting enough that a half-dozen sloops from Europe and Canada are anchored there.

San Juan Bautista (John the Baptist) village (pop. 600), started in 1750 by the Spanish and still the only community on the island, is spread along the half-moon bay at the base of a 3,000-foot mountain that becomes a rain forest at its top. San Juan Bautista is part sleepy South Pacific fishing village, part eco-tourism hideaway.

Along deeply rutted dirt roads, there are eight or nine summer cabins and basic bed-and-breakfast operations— several hundred tourists came to the village last year—with a few in-home convenience stores, three churches (Evangelical, Mormon and Catholic), a leaky gymnasium, a lively school serving first through eighth grade, a city hall, a small Crusoe museum with translations of the novel in Polish and Greek, and an adjoining library with a satellite Internet connection, thanks to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

The homes are wooden bungalows for the most part, weathered but neat, with small yards and big leafy palm or fruit trees. Nearly everyone has TV, which consists of two Santiago channels. There’s neither visible poverty nor glaring wealth, with barely two dozen cars on the whole island, which measures about 2.4 by 7.4 miles.

My guide, Pedro Niada, a witty and well-read fellow who moved here with his wife from Santiago some years ago, estimates that 70 percent of the families still make their living from trapping lobster, but that number is declining. “We can’t lie,” he told me. “There are fewer and fewer lobster, more and more tourists.”

After a month on the island, the Puertos de Cinquewas stocked with turnips, goats and crayfish, yet no less wormeaten. Stradling ordered the men to set sail and leave CumberlandBay. Selkirk refused and told the men to do the same, believing the ship could never withstand the open sea or the battles the men so craved. Stradling mocked his navigator, and that set off Selkirk like he was back in Largo. After a bitter argument, Stradling must have felt he could not back down.

Selkirk was put ashore with his bedding, a musket, pistol, gunpowder, hatchet, knife, his navigation tools, a pot for boiling food, two pounds of tobacco, some cheese and jam, a flask of rum and his Bible. He had made the biggest decision of his life. No longer just a complainer, he had taken action.

But no sooner had he waded into CumberlandBay than he was overwhelmed with regret and fear. He had badly overplayed his hand. Not one of the men had joined him.

Selkirk pleaded with Stradling to be allowed back, but the captain was quite enjoying the moment. His unruly men were certainly watching this pathetic show, this hardheaded seaman begging for his life. Stradling wanted the message to sink in deeply with the crew: leave the ship and this will be you.

Perhaps feeling more stupid and angry than victimized, Selkirk finally turned his back on the Puertos de Cinque and resigned himself to waiting for what he thought would be a few days until another friendly ship happened by.

He was wrong by four years and four months.

There is no evidence that Selkirk ever kept a diary—he may have been illiterate, though historians disagree—so what we know of his time on the island comes primarily from two sources: his eventual rescuer, Capt. Woodes Rogers, a distinguished English privateer (or despised pirate, if you were Spanish) who wrote A Cruising Voyage Round the World, about his 1708-1711 expedition, and English essayist and playwright Richard Steele, who interviewed Selkirk in 1711 for the magazine The Englishman.

According to them, Selkirk was so despondent for the first several months that he contemplated suicide—presumably with one of his few bullets—and almost welcomed the gnawing hunger each day because it at least occupied his mind. (He had, however, heard stories from Dampier and others about several men who had survived alone on Juan Fernández—one for five years, and a Moskito Indian named Will, who made it alone for three years and is thought by some to be the model for Robinson Crusoe’s man, Friday.) Bellowing sea lions—actually the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, as large as 19 feet and weighing up to two tons—wailed at night unlike any animal Selkirk had ever heard, trees snapped in frequent gales, and hordes of rats, émigrés from European ships, tore at Selkirk’s clothing and feet as he slept. In time, he was able to domesticate some feral cats, who served as companions and exterminators.

Finding shelter and food on the verdant island was less of a problem than keeping his sanity. Fish were plentiful, but they “occasion’d a Looseness” in his bowels, so he stuck with the huge island “lobster”—actually a clawless crayfish. There were so many fur seals that a buccaneer had written 20 years earlier, “We were forced to kill them to set our feet on shore.” For meat he prepared a hearty goat broth with turnips, watercress and cabbage palm, seasoned with black pimento pepper. What he missed most was bread and salt.

Eventually he grew so nimble running barefoot on the steep hills above the bay that he could chase down any goat he wanted. “He ran with wonderful Swiftness thro the Woods and up the Rocks and Hills,” Captain Rogers would later observe. “We had a Bull-Dog, which we sent with several of our nimblest Runners, to help him in catching goats but he distanc’d and tir’d both the Dog and the Men.”

Selkirk was able to start a fire with pimento wood and his musket flints, and tried to keep it going night and day, but he was careful to hide the flames from Spanish ships the Spanish were known for torturing their prisoners or turning them into slaves in South American gold mines. He once narrowly escaped a Spanish search party by climbing a tree.

To maintain his spirits, the Scottish navigator sang hymns and prayed. “[H]e said he was a better Christian while in this Solitude than ever he was before,” Rogers later wrote. At some point, Selkirk apparently embraced life again, and like Thoreau, saw deep new truths about himself revealed through the cleansing simplicity of the demands of survival.

“[T]horoughly reconciled to his Condition,” wrote Steele, “his Life [became] one continual Feast, and his Being much more joyful than it had before been irksome.” He learned to live without his vices—alcohol and tobacco, even salt—and found new fascination in the hummingbirds and turtles he had likely ignored as the headstrong Fifer from Largo.

But mainly Selkirk spent hour upon hour scanning the sea for a rescue.

One gloomy morning Pedro Niada and I climbed to Selkirk’s “lookout,” or mirador, a strenuous walk of just under two miles that leads 1,800 feet above San Juan Bautista up a muddy trail. We munched on the same tart red berries that probably sustained Selkirk, waiting for the sky to clear.

When the sun broke through, I understood why Selkirk had chosen this spot. He could not only see for miles in every direction, thereby giving himself an hour or two headstart if he needed to evade the Spanish—who tortured and enslaved captives—but he could also sustain his spirits. As the clouds separated and a rainbow dashed across the glassy sea, I could appreciate what Selkirk must have felt on that fine day, February 2, 1709, when Woodes Rogers’ majestic Duke finally appeared before him.

By then, Selkirk was like a bearded beast on two legs, clothed in goatskins and “so much forgot his Language for want of Use, that we could scarce understand him, for he seem’d to speak his words by halves,” as Rogers reported.

He offered Rogers’ men goat soup and told his story of survival as best he could. He might not have been believed, but Rogers’ navigator was none other than William Dampier, who recognized Selkirk as a comrade from the San Jorge- Puertos de Cinquevoyage. Dampier likely told Selkirk the bittersweet news that he had been all too right about the decrepit Puertos de Cinque. Soon after abandoning the Scotsman in 1704 the ship sank off the coast of Peru, killing all but Stradling and a dozen or so men, who wound up in Spanish prisons.

Rogers helped Selkirk shave and gave him clothes. The crew offered him food, but his diet of fresh fish, goat and vegetables made the Duke’s stale and over-salted rations hard to stomach. His rock-hard feet swelled in the constraint of shoes. In recognition of not only his past skill but also perhaps his ordeal, Rogers made him a navigator once again. Finally, he was headed home. But not immediately.

Rogers would have so much success off the coast of Peru and Ecuador robbing Spanish galleons that the Duke stayed at sea another two years, not returning to London’s ThamesRiver until October 1711, eight years after Selkirk left it.

Woodes Rogers and Richard Steele wrote their accounts of Selkirk’s life on Robinson Crusoe Island in 1712 and 1713, respectively, giving the Fife mariner and his family a fame they had never imagined. In the years that followed, Selkirk became a somewhat eccentric celebrity—he may have married two women at the same time—enriched by his share of the Duke’s plundered riches (about 800 English pounds). For the better part of two years, he dined out on his adventures, wandering from pub to pub in Bristol and London, telling tales of the South Seas for free meals and a pint.

But some months after first meeting Selkirk, Steele noticed that the “cheerful” man he had first encountered now seemed burdened by the world. “This plain Man’s Story is a memorable Example,” Steele wrote, “that he is happiest who confines his Wants to natural Necessities . . . or to use [Selkirk’s] own Expression, I am now worth 800 pounds, but shall never be so happy, as when I was not worth a farthing.”

When he finally returned to Lower Largo, he wanted little to do with his relatives. Some biographers say (though others doubt) that he began trying to replicate the best of his life on Juan Fernández, down to a cave-like shelter he built behind his father’s house, from which he would gaze upon the Largo harbor. He evidently became something of a loner and resumed his drinking and fighting.

About this time, Daniel Defoe, a well-known British political activist and author, grew intrigued by Selkirk’s story. Historians have debated whether he and Selkirk actually met—Defoe would have had everything to gain by saying they had, which he never did—but Defoe did meet with Woodes Rogers, and few dispute that the Fife sailor inspired what would become Defoe’s literary sensation, The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.

Published in April 1719 when Defoe was 59 and Selkirk 43, Crusoe captivated readers unlike anything in its time (and is now considered by many the first true English novel). Laced with politics and social theory, it was part adventure, part Christian allegory, part utopianist attack on British society. The first printing, of a thousand copies, quickly went to a second, third and fourth. The book was translated into French, Dutch, German, Spanish and Russian, making Crusoe one of the world’s most recognized fictional characters. But the author, who had been repeatedly imprisoned for his opposition to the British government, remained anonymous.

“It wasn’t a comfortable time for controversial writers,” says Maximillian Novak, author of Daniel Defoe: Master of Fictions— His Life and Ideas. “One British bookseller had already been hanged. Defoe had attacked corporate power and the high Church of England. Crusoe definitely made him some money, but he sold the copyright and ultimately only made a fraction of what he deserved.”

As for Selkirk, in November 1720, at age 44, he returned to the only life that ever meant anything to him, signing on as the first mate of a naval warship, the HMS Weymouth, bound for Guinea and the Gold Coast of Africa in search of pirates. It would be another cursed voyage, plagued by yellow fever and perhaps typhoid. In all his travels Selkirk had never seen “the fever” destroy as many men as this. The ship’s terse log recorded dozens of deaths within a year’s time, often three or four a day. On December 13, 1721, it recorded another. “North to northwest. Small Breeze and fair,” it read. “Took 3 Englishmen out of a Dutch ship and at 8 pm. Alexander Selkirk . . . died.”


History Question: Would Hitler's Death Have Prevented WWII?

The world would still have been bound to experience massive conflicts, arriving at different places and times but resolving familiar tensions between capitalism and communism, colonialism and national independence, and nationalism and internationalism.

Esto es lo que necesita recordar: Without Hitler implementing his genocidal theories, its possible the massacre of millions of Jews and other minorities in the Holocaust would have been averted, even if anti-Semitism itself would still have persisted. Perhaps the Weimar Republic might have avoided Nazi Germany’s descent into militarism and authoritarianism.

Legend has it that on September 28, 1918, a wounded Private Adolf Hitler lay in the sights of Henry Tandey, a British soldier who would receive the Victoria Cross for his daring actions in engagement in Marcoing, France.

Tandey supposedly took pity on the limping German soldier, who nodded in gratitude and made his escape.

While historians believe this incident was fabricated by Hitler himself, the apocryphal legend nonetheless poses a provocative question: how differently might world history have turned out with just one more pull of the trigger amidst the senseless slaughter of World War I?

In other words—was World War II bound to happen due to larger economic and political forces? Or was it uniquely a product of a monstrous yet charismatic leader bending the streams of history in his wake?

Would the Nazis have risen to power without Hitler?

The Nazi party’s earlier incarnation was the German Worker’s Party (DAP), founded by a locksmith named Anton Drexler. In fact, Hitler was originally assigned by German Army intelligence after World War I to infiltrate DAP, but ended up a convert and became party leader in 1921.

Therefore, a working-class far-right party was likely in the cards for Germany even without Hitler, carried by the same currents of economic distress and revanchist anger that the supposedly “undefeated” Imperial Germany had been “stabbed-in-the-back” by surrendering in World War I.

But on the other hand, there’s decent evidence that the Nazi’s rise to power came from unusual circumstances tied to Hitler himself. That’s because even con Hitler, the Nazis received only 37 percent of the vote in the 1932 election.

Most Germans (53 percent) reelected general and statesman Paul von Hindenburg, who was supported by German center-right- and center-left parties, into the presidency. Despite personally disliking Hitler, the 84-year-old Hindenburg struggled to form a coalition and was eventually convinced to appoint Hitler chancellor. Following a staged attack on the Reichstag, Hitler then persuaded Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag, allowing Hitler to rule by decree.

Thus, the Nazi accession to power grew not out of irresistible popular support, but peculiar political factors that might have played out differently without Hitler in the picture.

Without Nazis running the show, would Germany have begun its military campaigns in Europe?

Probably not on the short term.

Undoubtedly, there was a sentiment that Germany had been ill-treated by the treaty of Versailles (though Germany paid only one-eighth of the reparations owed before the rest were waived in 1932), and many of the old elite welcomed Hitler’s focus on rebuilding German military power.

The military especially believed Germany deserved to regain her status as a great power and advocated a more militarized and authoritarian society. Technocrats in the Germany Army secretly fostered the development of tanks, ships and warplanes restricted under the treaty of Versailles in the 1920s (ironically, with Soviet assistance)—years before Hitler’s rise to power.

However, the Wehrmacht’s senior leadership believed Hitler’s wars were impetuous and some even plotted coups against Hitler. It was not so much that they opposed foreign conquest principle, but rather believed Germany needed six to ten more years to build up its forces.

Germany, therefore, was likely to reemerge as a military power, but not necessarily at the breakneck pace the Nazis pushed it to.

A Germany without Nazis in charge might still have turned to militaristic nationalism. Contentious border territories—the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, and the geographically awkward Polish corridor—would have remained potential flashpoints.

But political winds might also have steered the Republic on some less destructive path.

World War II…started by Stalin?

France and the UK’s response to Hitler was muddled by their preoccupation with the threat posed by Stalin’s Soviet Union. Even during the Munich crisis of 1938, Paris and London turned down an offered alliance from Moscow—fearing the Soviets more than the Nazis.

Indeed, some historians dubiously allege that the Soviet Union was bound to invade Germany instead.

Stalin undeniably was down for opportunistic invasions. He collaborated with Hitler in the occupation of Poland in 1939, went on to invade Finland that winter, and then seized the Baltic states and the Romanian province of Bessarabia.

But Stalin preferred to pick on vulnerable countries without backing from strong allies. There’s good reason to question whether the pre-World War II Red Army could have posed the same threat as the Nazi German war machine. In the 1939 Winter War, over a half-million Soviet troops backed up by thousands of tanks and warplanes struggled to defeat smaller, lightly-armed Finnish troops, suffering over 300,000 casualties. Given this underwhelming performance, it’s hard to believe that Stalin would perceive the Red Army as ready for a showdown with western Europe.

Still, Hitler’s aggression interrupted strategic competition between Western Europe and Moscow. In Hitler’s absence, it’s possible an earlier Cold War would have taken its place.

What about China and Japan?

For over one-sixth the planet, World War II began not in September 1939, but rather in July 1937, when Imperial Japan embarked on a second, larger-scale invasion of China following an earlier campaign in 1933.

The spirit of militaristic nationalism then prevalent in Tokyo had risen in reaction to European colonialism, not fascism. Therefore, Japan’s invasion of China would likely have still occurred. This might still have led to the imposition of a U.S. embargo on petroleum that led Tokyo to plan the Pearl Harbor attack.

But historically, the trigger for the U.S. embargo was Japan’s invasion of French Indochina—an incursion unlikely to have occurred had France not just been defeated by Germany.

Indeed, Japan’s strategic calculus in 1940–41 would have been very different without a war in Europe. The Pearl Harbor raid was meant to buy time for Japan’s capture of British and Dutch territories in Asia—particularly the oil fields in the Netherland East Indies.

Had Tokyo balked at taking on the full might of the UK as well as the United States, it might have instead entrenched itself more deeply in China and developed the economic strength of its planned multinational empire, the Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. This might have prolonged Japan’s occupation of Korea and parts of China, and fostered closer Japanese ties with nationalists in Thailand and India.

A Different World

At the start of World War II, there were six great powers with multinational spheres of influence: the United Kingdom and France with their vast colonial empires in Africa and Asia Germany, dominant in Central Europe Japan and its growing Asian/Pacific empire the Soviet Union, with influence on Europe and Central Asia and the United States, then withdrawing from colonial adventures in Latin America and the Philippines.

World War II destroyed Germany and Japan as great powers. The UK and France were left a shadow of their former selves. The USSR and the United States both emerged as formidable military powers with footholds in Europe and Asia.

From this titanic reshuffling of global order eventually arose the United Nations, the state of Israel, NATO and the Warsaw Pact, the conversion of European colonial empires into independent nation-states, and the sundering North and South Korea.

Without the Second World War, numerous world-changing technologies from chemotherapy and rocketry to the nuclear bomb would have developed at different times and places. Movements affected by social changes wrought by the conflict, such as the Civil Rights movement or Indian independence, would have taken different turns.

Without Hitler implementing his genocidal theories, its possible the massacre of millions of Jews and other minorities in the Holocaust would have been averted, even if anti-Semitism itself would still have persisted. Perhaps the Weimar Republic might have avoided Nazi Germany’s descent into militarism and authoritarianism.

But the world would still have been bound to experience massive conflicts, arriving at different places and times but resolving familiar tensions between capitalism and communism, colonialism and national independence, and nationalism and internationalism.

How those conflicts might have played out differently we can only guess—but it’s safe to say that the alternate history version of “We Didn’t Start the Fire” still would not have lacked for lyrical content.

Sébastien Roblin holds a master’s degree in conflict resolution from Georgetown University and served as a university instructor for the Peace Corps in China. He has also worked in education, editing, and refugee resettlement in France and the United States. He currently writes on security and military history for War Is Boring.

This first appeared in 2019 and is being reposted due to reader interest.


Engine Block Patterns

All Chevy V6 and V8 engines continue to use the same block-to-bellhousing pattern as introduced in 1955. This includes Generation I, II and III engines. Some Gen. III engines omit drilling and tapping one hole in the block. The installer can drill and tap this blank boss appropriately and it may be recommended to do so if maximum strength is required.

The Chevy I6 "Blue Flame" (235 cid, etc.) from 1950-1961 use a different engine block pattern than the popular 90-Degree. However, the Chevy 265 cid (and its following 250 & 292 variants) from 1962-1990 do feature the same 90-Degree pattern as the Chevy V6 / V8 family.

The GM (technically a Pontiac) 151 "Iron Duke" also shares this same block pattern. However, the Jeep bellhousings from these engines (1980-1982) rarely fit the full-size clutches of the V6/V8 engines. Flywheels do not interchange.

GM Atlas engines - the new generation of I6, I5 & I4 - use the same standardized engine block pattern as the 1955-on engines.

Chevrolet / GM Big Block V8 engines have the same block pattern. Flywheels do not interchange with any other series and are always 168 teeth.

Buick, Olds, Pontiac and Cadillac block patterns (BOPC) are different. However, note that some of these cars increasingly used Chevrolet engines, supplanting their own V8 designs as GM gravitated towards a more unified powertrain.


The vision for the Oresund Region finally realised in 1990s

In the early 1990s, the ratification of the project finally took place. However, even then the context was challenging there was an economic crisis in Denmark, and Sweden was embroiled in an atmosphere of uncertainty regarding its EU accession. These tensions added to the environmental protests against the project, which had been going on since the early 1970s and had contributed to making the Oresund bridge a rather divisive issue. That said, the vision of the Oresund region and its economic potential won out this time.

The hope of increasing the volume of bilateral trade and of establishing the Sound as one of the main industrial, cultural, and touristic districts in Northern Europe ultimately convinced the political and economic establishment of Scania and Zealand to think in terms of region, and cross-bordering cooperation, rather than in the traditional terms of two separate countries. Filling the gap at the heart of the new region with a fixed link became pivotal for supporting this vision.

The realization of the project was helped by the European Roundtable of Industrialists (ERT) setting the groundwork in the 1980s. It appeared that the big European industries could influence the situation where local, regional and national initiatives, at both the private and public level, could not: the ERT lobbied Swedish and Danish politicians and the European Commission. It implemented a far-reaching advertisement campaign aimed at making the public more receptive to the idea of the need to fill the “missing links” between Europe and Scandinavia with good infrastructure links. Part of its proposal was the Scandinavian Link, which included the projects for the Oresund bridge, the Hallandsås Tunnel and the Swedish portion of the European highway 6. ERT had sufficient capital, and lobbying and marketing knowhow to align regional, national and international interests. The regional entrepreneurs and the majority of local institutions sided firmly with ERT, joining newly-constituted interest groups favorable to the establishing of the fixed link, and injecting capital into developing the Oresund region concept.

In 1991, the Danish and Swedish parliaments issued a bilateral agreement on the building of the Oresund bridge. In 1993, Øresundskonsortiet, a joint venture between the state companies Svedab (Sweden) and A/S Øresundsforbindelsen (Denmark), chose the two-level bridge designed by Danish architect Georg Rotne for ASO Group, a joint venture between private firms from Britain, France, and Denmark. In 1995, the construction work bid was won by Sundlink Contractors HB, a Swedish-German-Danish joint venture. The costs for the link’s construction, covered by a 4-billion-euro loan from the Danish and Swedish states to Øresundskonsortiet, are repaid from the fees levied for crossing the bridge.

Since 2000, the Oresund bridge has successfully connected Sweden and Denmark. The Danish-Swedish thriller TV-series Bron/Broen (2011-) has turned the bridge into a globally renowned icon of Norden. Its economic, societal and cultural benefits still appear to be clear and unquestioned, particularly compared to other Oresund projects that fell by the way side, such as, the Oresund Committee, and Oresund University. The history of the bridge illuminates different visions for society as well as intersecting local, regional, national, and international dimensions. Sus sinergias transfronterizas reales e imaginarias significan que, si bien sigue siendo una gran hazaña de ingeniería y cooperación que marca una diferencia práctica en la vida cotidiana de las personas, también nos hace contemplar la idea de fronteras estatales y libertad de movimiento, nórdicas o de otro tipo.


FOTO: El puente de Oresund (Øresundsbron) visto desde un avión que despegaba del aeropuerto de Kastrup, Copenhague. El puente de Oresund es un mega proyecto de ingeniería que comprende un túnel y un puente ferroviario y de carretera combinados. Desarrollado en dos niveles, combina un ferrocarril de doble vía de 16 km de largo y una autopista de cuatro carriles que discurre por un puente atirantado de tres secciones de 7,8 km desde Malmö hasta una altura de 57 metros sobre el canal Flintrännan hasta el Isla artificial de Peberholm de 4 km de largo. Peberholm conecta el puente con un túnel sumergido de 4 km, el túnel Drøgen, que termina en una península de 1 km de largo en la costa de Copenhague. Foto: Nick-D, Wikipedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0.


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Comentarios:

  1. Govind

    Bueno, empezó

  2. Dekel

    Pido disculpas, pero no podrías pintar un poco más en detalle.

  3. Eadsele

    Y que haríamos sin tu magnífica frase



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